Holy Bible

Modern Literal Version

New Testament

2015 Update


(The Open Bible Translation)

(The world's most accurate English translation.)

For better understanding, read the New Testament the way it should have been arranged and is closer to chronological order:

Mark, Matthew, John, Luke,

Acts: The Book of Conversions

James, 1&2 Thessalonians, Galatians, 1&2 Corinthians, Romans,

Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians,

1&2 Peter, Jude, Philemon, 1 Timothy, Titus, Hebrews, 2 Timothy,

1-3 John, Revelation.

(A "Simple Reading Schedule" is in Appendix II for a 2 month through the MLV.)

To read the New Testament in chronological order, go to Mark chapter 1 and start reading then to Acts 1.

You should read the MLV once all the way through, not using any other translation during this time. The MLV's strongest feature is its uniformity of English wording & underlying Greek wording, by using another translation during this time you will not be able to learn from this uniformity as would a native Greek.

Holy Bible

Modern Literal Version

New Testament

2015 Update

© Copyright 1999, 2014 by G. Allen Walker, Co-Editor. World-wide restrictions as follows:

We are not here to make money and we will entertain requests for any items not listed below.

1. The purpose of a Copyright is to prevent others from claiming a Copyright and subsequently altering the text.

2. When quoting the "Modern Literal Version" the quotes are to be noted by 'Modern Literal Version' or 'MLV'. Footnoting larger amounts is totally acceptable.

3. This translation may be used in any Bible commentary, study module, tract, class book, similar study materials as long as noted according to the guidelines above, and the Modern Literal Version's part does not exceed 80% of the volume of the total project; so 'have at it.' Essentially, you may quote 5,000 verses without permission. (We will be happy to assist you in the completion of your project.)

4. After 80% you prohibited from selling the Copyrighted MLV! Are you aware of violations? Please let us know.

5. Incorporation of the MLV into a computer-generated software format, non-profit or give-away, is permissible, provided that you have initiated a request to do so in writing. Should you violate our restrictions and sell your product, any MLV notation must be removed from the product. If you find any software or module that is not linked from our main web page, consider the files there as being altered, pirated or containing potential spyware.

6. The HTML version and search engine can be reproduced on other web sites but requires permission. (Too many OLD copies of the MLV are around and we would like to have those updated.)

7. Createspace.com (link below) is the current publisher of the Modern Literal Version printed edition. Please, whenever possible, buy directly from them (more of your money stays in the USA.) List price is $9.39 for the 8.5" x 11", wide margin, Bold Letter Edition paperback. Volume discounts from the Christian Library are about $6 each for 18+ sales includes shipping.

8. Authorized Kindle available only from amazon.com.


2015 Update

Quick Overview:

The "Modern Literal Version" uses the Majority Text ("The New Testament in the Original Greek", Byzantine Textform 2005, Compiled and Arranged by Maurice A. Robinson and William Pierpont).

Two distinct and opposite techniques are used in translating the New Testament from the Greek. The "Modern Literal Version" is the first type, a 'literal' translation sometimes called 'word-for-word' translation. The second and most common in the past 30 years is to paraphrase the Greek into English. The latter are: dynamic equivalence, free style, thought-for-thought , better than a word-for-word, essentially literal and so on. We understand the value of paraphrases for those looking for a Bible that reads as easily as a newspaper, however we feel strongly about having a Bible without opinions, instead faithfully reproducing the original Greek Bible into Modern English. One way to look at this is: if there was a court case with a particular document that was being used as evidence and this document was in a foreign language would a "thought-for-thought" translation be acceptable? The 'document' we are talking about here is the 'Last Will and Testament' of our Lord Jesus & Savior. The goal of everyone who worked on the "Modern Literal Version" was to keep any form of commentary or paraphrase out of this translation as is humanly possible. The MLV is not sold for profit because there is no denomination or publishing company or foundation behind it. All Christian groups have had the opportunity to propose fixes or assist. The only uninspired traditions kept in the MLV are: punctuation and capitalization; chapter and verse numbers; and book order.

The Open Translation Bible:

The Modern Literal Version Bible is considered 'finished,' although it has been open for revision by anyone since 1998. Our utmost desire is to have a translation that has no errors and we believe that the best way to produce an error-free translation is to keep it open to the public in the same manner as 'open-source software' is to programmers. In 15 years, we have found no better way than our 'open translation' idea to achieve this goal. Absolutely anyone in the world is able to contribute, including, of course, the several million who have visited the Christian Library. You, too, may make recommendations or help with the entire New Testament, with either Greek or English type proofreading. If the recommendations this next year warrant another update next year, we will do one per year in printed form & Kindle. If they are simply 20 or so corrections necessary, we will provide a corrections list on the website. We plan to update free electronic versions periodically throughout the year, if needed. The 'cutting edge' update is always the BOLD Letter Edition PDF at http://www.ModernLiteralVersion.org/bibles/MLV/MLVBL.pdf

As far as we know, this 'open translation' idea is unique to the MLV. You are invited to participate in helping to make the MLV even better. There is even a Facebook group at https://www.facebook.com/groups/MLVbible. All who have helped have contributed to further the readability or accuracy of this translation or simply have double checked previous efforts. Now is the time for the Bible is placed in the hands of every day Christians, without employing a huge publishing company only out to make money. Any corrections please email to mlvbible (at) gmail (dot) com with subject line: "MLV".

Links and General Information:

A printed version, 8.5"x11", wide margin, standard 12 point font size and 'BOLD Letter Edition' was made available in Oct. 2013 at https://www.createspace.com/4450574 (The publisher is located in S.C., USA) & http://www.amazon.com/dp/1492776270 (The Netherlands). The one labeled as "2013" version is exactly the same inside or newer than what is labeled as the current version on Amazon.com but cheaper to purchase about $6.50.

The e-Sword module MLV 2014 modules (not updated often):


Also make sure you get the Dictionary / Concordance too:


The "Modern Literal Version" is available in Amazon's Kindle format as well, in Bold Letter Edition for color blind readers or black and white Kindles (words of God, Jesus & the Holy Spirit in BOLD print) and in the Red Letter Edition, (words of God, Jesus & the Holy Spirit in RED.)

Volume discounts from the Christian Library are about $108 for a case of 18 ($6 each) which includes shipping to 48 states, sales tax in 13 states.

If you have or your congregation has a website, we ask that you help the MLV in the search engine rankings by adding one or all of the download links above to your site. You may also add this translation with its own search module too. Any other free advertising like Facebook, Twitter, etc. is always appreciated. Thank you in advance.

Our prayer, and hopefully yours too, is that all the paraphrased translations are removed from your pews and replaced with the "Modern Literal Version." Many congregations give these out to visitors. Maybe yours should think about this type of evangelism.


The 'Modern Literal Version New Testament' came about in 1987 due to a young Christian's goal to find an accurate Modern English translation from which to study in 1987. The New American Standard contradicted itself in Matthew 5:17 and Ephesians 2:15 for example. Almost all other Modern English translations do not claim to be literal or word-for-word and most that make such a claim are factually not. Concordance look-ups in all existing translations present non-uniform Greek word renderings, an issue of concern.

A group of Christians, of which this new Christian was a part, was actively doing topical, English and Greek word studies with their Bibles and "Englishman's Greek Concordances." They discovered the ASV was the most accurate translation. They initially started a study bible cross reference section for it. Then an idea grew to do a computerized revision of the 1901 American Standard Version for the public domain, code named "ASV3". These ideas were dropped with too many problems: the underlining Greek text, massive footnoting, archaic words, inconsistent Greek word translations, etc. A better idea grew, the creation of a modern (English) literal version (which later became the name). A group of workers, computer owners and scholars, who believe in the total authority and inspiration of the Bible, devoted time, advise, software and work for the project. Now, over 27 years later, at least 35 experts in the original language have contributed work needed to make this translation a reality. Many others, about 170, have also helped with large amounts of proofreading, English comprehension, double-checking Greek definitions, compounds, synonyms, Greek concordance look-ups, accuracy checks and/or other menial (but extremely essential) tasks. A few thousand corrections have been received via E-mail for changes, so far. We will never be able to express our gratitude enough to all of these people, living and now deceased.

The MLV was the first translation to use the power of the computer (8086) which would have been impossible before the computer age. This translation would have been impossible without Word Perfect (special thanks to Corel Corporation).

The original intentions and guidelines for the 'Modern Literal Version' were:

1. To translate the original language, word-for-word, into English, then to further boost the accuracy of the MLV, we translate the same Greek word into as few different English words as possible. We also do this for English words by not using them for different Greek words. Careful attention was paid to synonyms, antonyms and compound words. One way to look at this is: if God wanted 10 different words used instead of one single Greek word, the inspired writers would have penned it that way. The New Testament is its own best commentary when you see the same Greek word translated into the same English word throughout. We call this 'uniform and consistent' translating and we believe we're the first translation to ever attempt this. This form of translation is an extremely hard task, not one that many translators would ever take the time to do, even now that it is possible with computers. More information is in the 'Wording Statistics' section later.

2. The goal of the MLV was not to make it perfect everyday English, but try to make it understandable to the majority of English speaking people, while remaining literal. Sentences in the MLV may start with conjunctions like 'and,' 'but,' 'for' and 'because'. This was so we could split incredible long sentences (50+ words) that were appearing as we translated into English. The Modern Literal Version is about junior high school reading level.

3. To translate some verses that have been misinterpreted for years by many religious groups, as close as possible to the original language.

4. To use italics for supplied words and use supplied words as opposed to paraphrasing. We want people to see what we added.

5. To translate the money and measuring systems of the Bible into some understandable form. (See the Appendix.)

6. To use 'will' for all future tenses. Though it is not proper modern English. It is the way most English people speak. 'Shall' is retained in questions.

7. To use paragraph format. Verse format often take meanings out of context or causes misinterpretations of the context.

8. To use the more proper 'may' or 'might' for the subjunctive mood verbs. The ASV used 'should' and 'shall.' Shall is not consider 'conditional' in modern English, but future tense. (See more in the Appendix II section).

9. To arrange the Greek word order into normal English word order of subject verb object, (SVO). Following Greek word order is not more literal or accurate; if we retained the Greek order it would be more like an interlinear without the Greek.

10. To footnote or explain in the Appendix places where a literal translation could not be understood or was an idiom used by the common Greeks. For example: 'into/to the ages' is an idiom for 'forever'. (These are not as common as many people would have you believe).

11. To render active tense verbs as 'is/are verb-ing' to help show action. Many people wrongly say the '-eth' ending used in older translations meant continual action. It was simply the way they spoke before the 1800's.

12. To fix the preposition and conjunction problems that plague all translations. Our biggest fix is the English word 'for' that was used even in the ASV for several Greek words which mean 'because of,' 'because,' 'to,' ' toward,' 'of,' 'in/on behalf of' and a mild form of 'because.' The MLV translated all Greek words that mean 'because,' 'because of' and 'in/on behalf of' as such. The other meanings are shown by use of asterisks (*) with the two most common Greek words translated as 'for' ('eis', G1520 = *for and G1063 'gar' = for*).

13. To avoid inconsistencies caused by splitting up the translators and proofreaders into groups . A typical translation may have 100 plus people but by the time you split them into 25 or more committees the number of people in one particular book might be as little as 4 and those different groups can cause stylistic and translation variations. Those who volunteer with the MLV tend to work all the way through the New Testament, so in the MLV the total per book far exceeds any committee type translation.

14. To include a Harmony of the New Testament with AD dates, which gives a person the ability to read the Bible the way is was written or in chronological order. (Start at Mark, then go to Acts.)

The 1987-1999 version, roughly 95% completed, was formally U.S. copyrighted and placed into the 'Christian Library' in June, 1999 at http://www.ChristianLibrary.org because of needed bandwidth and limited funds. http://www.ModernLiteralVersion.org was added in 2014 to help with current bandwidth issues.

A challenge to all who think that another translation is more accurate to the original Greek than the MLV: show us the correction needed! Please remember 'thus saith the Greek' not 'my version says.' This translation needs to be judged by the Greek, not anything else!

In Christ,

G. Allen Walker, June 9, 1999.

Computer Tech for the New Testament, 1987-2012

Revised and updated by multiple helpers from 2001-2014.

To God is the glory. Amen.


The primary goal is to keep the MLV free from theological concerns and traditions by translating as literally as possible while retaining modern language and readability. The 'Open Translation' approach is also a great 'checks & balance' system.

The Greeks wrote in present tense to give the reader the feeling of 'being there' and so this translation leaves present tense unchanged.

Asterisks (*) are used for footnoting of words listed here in the Appendix. These are for the few instances where the English translation does not lend itself to a satisfactory meaning of the underlying Greek word. In addition to this, we use an asterisk to denote the difference between one English word that is being used for two different Greek words (see Age* below.) This substantially aids word studies.

A hyphen (-) is used in those places where two English words come from a single Greek word. It is of particular benefit to Greek scholars and the student who wishes to cross-reference words to the MLV concordance & Greek lexicon.

Italicized words are words not found directly in the Greek but are implied by the context. These words are sometimes needed to help show action, tense and expansion of the meaning of words that the English does not capture. Since the MLV is literal, not 'thought-for-thought', supplied words are of significant assistance for those phrases which are exceptionally difficult to read. By pointing out these words using italics the reader has the option to disregard them. The articles 'a' and 'an' are not found in the Greek and so are always supplied though never marked.

Paragraphs are used in this translation with no credence given to chapter or verse numbers since verse formats, chapter titles or other special formatting often takes ideas out of context, (see Mark 8:34 to 9:1 for an example). Double spaced paragraphs are an attempt to arrange by subject. Single-spaced paragraphs are for conversations or for sub-topics. We did not include subject headings since we decided this would reflect opinions and something not desirable in the Word of God.

Single or double quotation marks are not used in this translation since they are not found in the original language. Adding them would be an area of opinion.

We also do not capitalize pronouns that appear to be referring to God ('Him,' 'He' etc). This is to avoid inserting our opinion in the translation; the Greek does not make these distinctions.

Red Lettering or Bold Lettering (electronic or printed edition) is used for the words of Jesus, God the Father and the Holy Spirit even in an indirect quote as in Acts 26. If you do not believe the RED or BOLD should be used in a certain area, please ignore.

Greek is participle crazy. A rather large number of participles are found in sentences; it is common that a sentence contains no main verb, participle after participle. We have added supplied words in an effort to stay more literal and yet break these into smaller more readable English sentences..

The curly brackets ({}) offer additional information. They are blue in the Red Letter edition or gray in the Bold Letter release. These contain:

1. The Old Testament reference at the end of the verse which may be an exact quote or a paraphrase by the inspired writer or simply the location of the historical event. Single quotes are used at the beginning and end of actual quotes or paraphrases. We did not attempt to translate the Greek in Old Testament quotes to match the Hebrew to English translations.

2. We use a superscript '{F}' to represent footnotes to the left of the word vs. subscript 1,2,3, etc. used by most. The reader can find the footnote itself at the end of the chapter. This is also a way to keep one master copy for various printed and electronic formats.

3. 'Harmony of the Gospels and New Testament' is a man-made study help and combines information from the four books of Jesus' life here on the earth. (The Bible was not written in Encyclopedia format. Not all information on any subject is generally all inclusive in any one area.) Here is an example of the 'Great Commission' or better 'How to Make or Become a Disciple of Christ' and the way it is represented in the 'Modern Literal Version' throughout Mark.

{Mk 16:15-18 & Mt 28:18-20 & Lk 24:46-47 Mountain in Galilee}

Here is a combination of the above passages as an example, Mark is BOLD, Matthew is black, Luke is gray (the punctuation was fixed to attempt to make it easier to read in English).

And he said to them, As you* are going (You* go) into all the world and preach the good-news (thus it has been written, that the Christ must suffer and rise up from the dead the third day), should be preached in his name to all the nations, beginning from Jerusalem to the whole creation, make disciples of all the nations.

He who believes and is immersed, (immersing them into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit and that repentance and forgiveness of sins) will be saved; teaching them to observe all things whatever I commanded you*.

But he who disbelieves will be condemned.

And behold, I am with you* all the days, until the end of the world.

Wording & Definitions

(MLV Dictionary in e-Sword)

Age* is Strong's Dictionary number 2244 (onward, we will abbreviate as G2214 for electronic & book uniformity). It is very much the way we think of a person's 'age'. The other 'age, ages' not marked is a period of time. This 'age' is also translated as 'world' context determines which word. See World below.

Admonish means to 'instruct with warning' G3560.

Ambassador* see Apostle below.

And from G2532 is used the way we use a comma in lists. We have kept these "and" and any other Greek words that we could even if not 'English teacher approved.'

Apostle is a transliterated word. The English equivalent would be 'one sent' with the meaning of 'one sent on a mission.' Apostle has been kept when speaking of Jesus' apostles. Ambassador* is the other rendering of this Greek word, G652.

Appointed* is G5087 which literally is 'placed' but we don't use 'placed' that way in the English language. The other 'appointed' without the * is from compounds of G5021 which is 'command or appoint.'

Assuredly is literally 'amen' which roughly means 'so be it.' Jesus said this, (sometimes twice), at the beginning of His teachings. In the KJV this was translated 'verily, verily'. G281.

Baptism see Immersion.

Be, is, was, were, being, been verbs are generally 'helper words' added to other English verbs, adjectives or rarely nouns to translate some Greek verbs. When they are not 'helper words' then they are from compounds of G1096 ('become'), G1510 ('be, is, was...') and sometimes but rarely G2192 ('have, hold, help') and G5225 (denoted as be*, is*, was*, being*; exist, possess).

Believe, belief, faith, faithful, trust in verb, adjective, adverb or noun forms are some of those very few Greek words (G4100, G4102, G4103) which carry more meaning than the English equivalent. These words also carry the meaning: 'obey', 'had been persuaded.' The antonym of 'believe' is 'disobey' in the Greek language (G544). See John 3:36 for both words together.

Believe on literally in the majority of all places in the New Testament means 'believe upon.'

Believe in literally in the majority of all places in the New Testament means 'believe into'. A similar expression is found in Mat 28:19 '... into the name... '.

Belt is impossible to contextually distinguish; it is a simple belt or a complex series of leather straps used to hold tools, weapons, money or a belt of armor. The girdle (belt) was worn across the waist or across the chest. G2223.

Between* is an idiom for 'up through the middle,' G3319.

Bowels are where the Greeks thought the emotions were born. This is where we get expressions such as 'desires of the heart,' 'gut feeling,' 'nervous stomach' and so on. G4698.

Brethren is specifically 'brothers' but used more often to describe kinfolk, whether by family ties or by the blood of Jesus. Though translated from a Greek masculine noun, G80, the word includes males and females in context.

Centurions were military commanders of over 100 soldiers. They were highly esteemed individuals of society. (G2763, Latin root; G1543, Greek.)

Charity in the MLV does not mean 'money.' It may include money but literally means 'good, merciful or kind acts.' G1654

Christ is a transliterated Greek adjective, G5547, that would translate as 'anointed.' Messiah is the Hebrew translation. In the 2015 version it was rendered as 'Jesus the Christ' either a title or a description.

Church, see Congregation* below.

Class (a noun) is the priestly service limited to a stated series of days. G2183.

Coming (as in Second Coming), G3952, has been translated more properly as 'presence.'

Commanders were military commanders of over 1000 soldiers. G5506

Congregation* was the original translation by Tyndale in the first English translation from the Greek and then later changed to 'church' by the Reformed Protestants in the Geneva Bible, a man-made word, then perpetuated by the Catholic Church and Church of England until today (now because of tradition). This man-made tradition has been used over the centuries to promote a 'church' rather than the 'congregation' of our Lord Jesus. The word could be translated 'assembly'. In Modern English most think of "church" as a building. The original Greek word, even in the Bible, carries no special reverence. It is used to describe Jews, a mob, a local congregation, and the congregation of faithful, obedience believers worldwide as in Matthew 16:18, Act 2:47, called the one body in Eph. 4:1-6, Eph 5:23 and others. Translating this Greek word as 'the called out' would be like saying a 'pineapple' is an 'apple produced by a pine tree.' The word was in use in all Greek writings meaning some form of 'leaving your home to assemble elsewhere, generally in public for town announcements.' (G1577; once from its synonym G4864).

Cohort is a Roman military term to describe a group of 600 soldiers. G4686.

Consequently though an adverb in English is used for a Greek particle, G686 & G687, consequently is not exactly 'therefore' in English. It means that the previous statement is probably so or will become so.

Container(s). The bible uses Hebrew and Greek measurements like 'cor' which is a measurement of volume, about 90 gallons. We rendered these words as volume + the word 'container' like 'ninety-gallon container' vs. footnoting everyone of them; see Luke 16:7.

Covenant* can be translated as 'agreement,' 'contract,' 'testament' or 'will' as in the expression 'last will and testament'. The underlying Greek word, G1242 and its compounds was translated uniformly as 'covenant' because 'testament' has no verb forms in English. It is the Old or New Testament or Covenant, or just a simple agreement, depending on the context. The Old Testament law was until the death of Jesus and the New Testament law is after His death, (see Hebrews 9-10 and Galatians 4:4). The entire letter to the Hebrews is dealing with why Christians are no longer bound by the laws or traditions of the Old Testament. By rights, the Gospels and the first chapter of Acts of the Apostles, are really part of the Old Covenant with God.

Cubit is a forearm's length. About 20-21 inches depending of which cubit measurement was common to that area. G4083.

Dead* is a Greek word, G5053, literally translated as 'ended' or 'finished.'

Denarius is a coin of the Roman currency system which we have retained in the MLV translation. The various other denominations are given here a rough comparison to Modern Day American currency.

1. A denarius was equivalent to a day's wage of the normal working class. It was a silver coin with Caesar's face on it. G1220.

2. Two drachmas was worth about 4 denarius, translated as 'four-denarius.' G1323.

3. A lepton was a bronze coin, translated as 'bronze-coin.' Two of these is equal to an Assarion or Quadran which are copper coins worth the cost of a dove or two sparrows, about a couple of mouthfuls of food. Assarion and Quadran are translated as 'copper coin'. About 50 cents in US money. G3016.

4. Mina which is translated as '200 denarius coins' is a about 80% of a year's salary in modern terms. In context it probably meant a whole years wage. G3414.

5. Slater was a coin equal to two drachmas or four denarius, translated as 'four-denarius coin.' G4715.

6. Talant is not a coin but about 75 pounds of silver. Equal to about 1 million dollars in US money today which is roughly 6000 denarius coins. Talant has nothing to do with the English word 'talent' which was how the Greek word, G5007, was erroneously transliterated in various other translations leading to confusion and kept due to tradition.

Devil was changed to 'the Slanderer' in the 2013 version is back in the 2015. The Greek word is an adjective used as a noun, a transliteration of Hebrew, which has a perfect English equivalent 'a slanderer.' This Greek word is where we got 'diabolical.' The Bible even uses the Slanderer and the Adversary (previously rendered Satan) together in Rev. 12:9 and 20:2.

Different as it occurs six times in the MLV is from the Greek word, G2087, which is translated as 'other' or 'another.' In context might mean something added as opposed to something different or opposite.

Disobedience* is the result of a 'refusal to hear' or more subtly a refusal to take in what you hear. G3876. The other disobedience (no *) is the end result of 'disbelieve.' G543.

Divine* is the only 'divine' that literally comes from the base word 'God.' G2304 & G2316.

Enmity has lost some of its meaning in current English usage. It is best described as a blend of hatred, opposition; to be an enemy. G2189.

Except* is the improper preposition of G4133. The other 'except' (no *) is an idiom of the literal 'if not' (G1508, G1487 & G3361).

Fallen-asleep is from the Greek word, G2837, which is used to mean death.

For is a preposition that has no true Greek equivalent. 'To' is the literal translation in all places in the 'Modern Literal Version.' Asterisk (*) versions are below. All 'because, because of, in or on behalf of' in the MLV are translated as such.

*For represents the Greek preposition G1519 (eis), that is literally translated as 'into', 'to' or 'toward.' It never means 'because of.' No translation has ever translated 'eis' as 'because of.' Sometimes to substitute 'leading toward' works very well to get the meaning across and has been used by many translations in some places. This preposition expresses forward action in the Greek verb where the English word 'for' can be used with verbs of actions past or future. All Greek words in the 'Modern Literal Version' that mean 'because' are translated as 'because'.

For* represents the Greek word G1063 (gar). It is a conjunction with no exact English equivalent. It is a mild form of 'because.'

Forgive* is the verb form of the Greek noun translated as 'favor' or 'grace.' G5483

Fornication is from the Greek word G4202 (pornia), which means any premarital or extramarital sexual acts between two or more people. It also means prostitution with its Greek base word meaning 'sell.' It does not in anyway mean lust. It means physical sex, including all variations of physical sex.

Furlong is 1/8 of a mile in English. But in the MLV it is from G4218 (stadium), which is 1/8 of a Roman mile 607 ft. (53 ft. less than the modern furlong).

Gentiles is also translated as 'nations.' The word means all nations which are not Israel or all people who are not Jews. G1484.

Gift* is G5496, another noun form of the Greek noun, G5485, translated as 'favor' or 'grace.'

Gird means to put on your belt, the final act of dressing yourself for the public or for a job, (see Belt also). G2224.

Godliness* is literally 'devoutness.' The base word is 'worship' not 'God.' Modern English does not use 'devout' as anything necessarily to do with God. G2125.

Good* is literally 'well.' G2095 & compounds. The other 'good' (no *) are actually two synonyms. Good in general and good outwardly. G0018 & G2570.

Good-news is simply how it reads or used to mean Jesus and His teaching in general, (1Cor. 15:1-4; 2Thes. 1:8, etc.). Originally in the MLV, the Greek word was translated as 'gospel' in the religious context and 'good news' in other contexts but was adopted as 'good-news' throughout in 2013 in order not to 'commentate' in the Word. G2098.

Gracious* is the translation of the Tyndale translation of 'blessed' an adjective in all the places that would have been something along the lines of: 'God is blessed.' (God is 'fortunate' is craziness. God for sure is not 'happy' with us.) G2128.

Harlot is a sexually promiscuous individual or a prostitute or both, primarily female. Context is not always certain as to which meaning is applicableeither. (A vulgar English word does fit perfectly). G4204.

Heart* is literally the intestines. The Greeks thought emotions were born there, in the way we often feel emotions in our gut. G4698.

Helper* is from a Greek masculine noun, G3875, always capitalized. It is a 'person called to help.'

Hosanna is a Hebrew word meaning 'Save me, I pray.' or 'Please deliver me.'

Immerse* or dipping is a translation of the Greek verb, G0907 (baptizo), and its variations which all mean to submerge completely. Baptize is a transliterated word which has been retained by most translations. Baptism is not used in the 'Modern Literal Version.' In 1999, until baptism was changed to immersion in about 2002, over 75% of the comments for revision of the Modern Literal Version from readers or visitors to the Christian Library were 'make baptism immersion.' This word has a perfect English equivalent and so has been used. For a Bible definition read Romans 6:1-6. The Greek word was common to the Greeks and was used to describe a 'bath,' 'washing dishes,' 'ceremonial washing' and 'Christian baptism.' See Mark 7:4,8; other Bible passages Romans 6:1-6, Mark 16:16, Colossians 2:12-14, 1 Peter 3:21, etc. This word never meant 'shower'. There is a Greek word, G4472, for 'sprinkling,' G4472 (base word 'rain-o'), and it is also used in the New Testament.

Iota (subscript) and serif are the smallest punctuation or accent marks of Greek. G2503.

Irreproachable can simply be a person not under an accusation by an enemy or legal system but more likely a person with an extremely good reputation. G410.

Keep in the MLV is one of those very few Greek words, G5083 & compounds, which carry more meaning than the English word. The word carries with it: 'to guard' and/or 'to watch over.'

Lack* with an asterisk (*) is used to tell the difference between the other 'lack' because the more literal meaning 'fall short' just doesn't fit English well. G3007 & G5302.

Like is literally 'as.' Common to their language, but comes across as slang in English. G5613.

Love* is Christian love. This word in religious writings had an intensified meaning, sacrificial love, from the same Greek spoken outside of the Bible, 'love of people' or simply 'like.' The Greeks had different words for different kinds of love, unlike English. This word is G25 (agapao).

Make*, makes*, made*, making* are simply the rendering of G4160 (poieo), and a few of its compounds. All other renderings of 'make' wording are where the word 'make' is added to another English verb or noun to better translate a Greek word into English.

May, Might, Should see Subjunctive Mood in Appendix II.

Messenger is simply transliterated as 'angel' in many translations, G32; we have opted to translate it rather than transliterate. Only context can determine if the messenger was from God or man or the Evil One. To stay with our 'Modern Literal Version' guidelines, we uniformly used 'messenger' starting in 2013.

Never* would be best rendered as 'in absolutely no way!' an emphatic no! or not! but is just way too wordy to fit into most verses. When never* occurs with the subjunctive mood verb, 'may never,' it does not mean 'will not' but there is a slight possibility this could happen. This has been a Tyndale tradition replicated over and over for the past 600 years. Oh well the theologians will have to adjust.

Obey*, obedient*, obedience* are G5218 & 5219. It is related to listening obediently to someone with authority. For example, a soldier listening to and obeying his commanding officer or children to their parents, as in: 'Children, obey* your* parents.' The other 'obey' words, G3980, come from the same root word as 'believe'. (See Believe).

Of* literally means 'out of.' This is unique to John & 1 John. G1537.

Offend and Offense literally means to 'snare', 'stumble' or a 'cause to stumble.' G4634 & G4625.

Only begotten which literally means 'only born of' or 'only born by' would be a contradiction in the Bible since 'we are all sons of God through Christ Jesus' and Mary gave birth to multiple children. Its Greek synonym is 'firstborn' which too is a contradiction since Abraham had two sons to Sarah and the 'only born of' was the second son. Others have used 'one and only,' 'only,' 'only born.' All of these are also contradictions. One other translation used 'only unique,' but this removes the 'born' part. The way to think of this is that the physical 'firstborn' had special rights or privileges. 'Only special born' would then settle all instances in the New Testament and would still fit the Greek. It is the figurative 'firstborn' in respect to special privileges or rights. G3439.

Pentecost is a transliterated word, G4005, which literal means '50th' as in the 50th day after Passover.

Pregnant* is literally 'swollen,' G1471, and the other 'pregnant,' G1094, is 'with a belly'. The Greeks just did not have a good word for pregnancy.

Quarternions are companies of four soldiers and is translated as 'companies of four' in Acts 12:11. G5069.

Rabbi and Rabboni is teacher in the Hebrew language. G4461 & G4462.

Recognize is also translated as 'fully know' or 'know fully.' It is the reader's choice since they are interchangeable. G1921.

Rejected* has more meaning and is best thought out as: 'they tested it, they did not like it and so they rejected it.' G593.

Rise*, Rising*, Raise*, Raised*, Risen*, Rose* is literally 'stand up' but that poses a problem since we do not use that idiom in English. G0450.

Separate* is from 'border or boundary' which would be 'border off' or the lighter meaning of 'quarantine off'. The other 'separate' is 'make room between.' G0873.

Serve* is the verb form of bondservant, best described as to serve in or under bondage which could be voluntarily or not. Moses was a bondservant; (that is how he gained his wife). Bondservants were slaves or people paying off a debt and some were hired servants under a contract. The specific type of servant cannot be determined, even in context. G1398.

Should, May, Might see Subjunctive Mood in Appendix II.

Sound* is also translated as 'healthy.' G5198.

Spirit is retained in capitalized form from the ASV. If you, as the reader, believe Spirit is not the Holy Spirit just ignore the capital 'S.' All capitalization and punctuation is man made, please ignore any you believe to be wrong. 'The Spirit of the truth' as it occurs in the Greek 3 times in John 14-16 & maybe once in 1 John 4 could be a title, 'Spirit of Truth.' G4151.

Spirit* is literally 'soul.' G5590 ("breath of life") and its compounds occur only in Philippians 2.

Standard* is like a U.S. yardstick. A round straight piece of wood or metal used as a standard of measurement to measure the length or distance of something. It is used figuratively in most instances of the New Testament. G2583

Stewardship means to manage the house or household or to manage the affairs of others. G3622.

Talant is listed under Denarius.

Than though marked as supplied, is most often a translation of a genitive Greek word when next to a comparative or superlative adjective or adverb; a Greek idiom. Example 'he is greater of me' would be 'he is greater than I.'

*That is G3705 which is stronger than modern English 'that.' A mild 'in order that' not as below.

That* in Greek is G2443 (hina), which literally means 'in order that' but is just too wordy for some English sentences.

*That* was used to replace a Greek idiom that reads 'to the to verb' (G1519 (eis) + G3588 neutered (to) + an infinitive verb). The ASV scholars had started to replace this idiom with 'to the end subject should/may verb'. We did this uniformly throughout the New Testament until the 2015 version but as 'to this end, that subject should/may verb' but even this is difficult to read. So now we have done the second best option by converting all of these to a subjunctive like form, '*that* subject should/may verb.' *That* can be read as 'in order that' if this makes more sense; same as the words (that*, *that) above.

The occurs in Greek same as in English with one major exception, 'the' is used with proper nouns. 'Paul' is 'the Paul.' We have tried to include all definite articles other than those with proper nouns. Many would say they should be dropped in some places but our opinion in this matter is if the inspired writers included 'the' then we should put it there in English whenever possible. The inspired writers could have left 'the' out in most of these questionable places and it still would have been good Greek grammar, especially in Paul's & Luke's writings who were fluent in speaking Greek. G3588.

Unimpeachable is from a Greek word, G423, that really does not translate well into English. The word is only used in the qualifications of elders/overseers/pastors/shepherds in the Bible. It means someone who is not under an accusation of any kind (that is, blameless and guiltless) and has an impeccable reputation. This and 'believing children' are the only two qualifications that are not learned or cannot be learned by a person who reaches to be an elder/overseer/pastor/shepherd.

View is a stronger 'see' or 'look.' It means to 'view as a spectator' or 'view from the side lines.' View is to be more attentive to that being viewed. G2334.

Washings* or immersions. See Immerse.

Wormwood may be a person or thing and an actual substance which is bitter tasting. G894.

You*, your*, is plural 'you' and 'your'. By keeping these you will find teachings in the MLV that is lost in almost all other modern English translations. We have never understood why modern translators fail to incorporate the plural 'you.'

Read the New Testament in Better Ways

For better understanding, read the New Testament the way it should have been arranged and is closer to chronological order:

Mark, Matthew, John, Luke,

Acts: The Book of Conversions

James, 1&2 Thessalonians, Galatians, 1&2 Corinthians, Romans,

Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians,

1&2 Peter, Jude, Philemon, 1 Timothy, Titus, Hebrews, 2 Timothy,

1-3 John, Revelation.

(A 2-month "Simple Reading Schedule" through the MLV is in Appendix II.)

To read the New Testament in chronological order, go to Mark chapter 1 and start reading then jump to Acts 1.

You should read the MLV once all the way through, not using any other translation during this time. The MLV's strongest feature is its uniformity of English wording and the underlying Greek. Utilizing an additional translation during this time will interrupt gaining valuable insight, as would a native Greek.

Note: There is only one master copy; therefore the book & computer formats all agree. Brackets [] are used in the electronic format to help navigate, and for conversions to other electronic formats.

This is dedicated to God, Jesus the Christ, and the Holy Spirit. To whom else would we dedicate it? To Him is the glory, the power and dominion forever and ever. Amen.